Rhodesia in Brief 1968
Some basic facts about Rhodesia
P.O. Box 8232, Causeway; and printed by the
Government Printer, P.O. Box 8062, Causeway, Salisbury.
Recompiled, by Eddy Norris, for use on ORAFs. Reason being is leave Rhodesia's 'footprint" for 1968 on the Internet.
Recompiled, by Eddy Norris, for use on ORAFs. Reason being is leave Rhodesia's 'footprint" for 1968 on the Internet.
In the United States, this material is filed with the Department of Justice, where the required registration statement, in terms of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, of the Rhodesian Information Office. 2852 McGill Terrace, Washington, D.C., as an agency of the Rhodesian Ministry of Information, is available for inspection. Registration does not indicate approval by the United States Government.
The Land and its People
History and Government
Wages and Salaries
Future Economic Developments
Industries and Production
Natural Resources Board
Services and Communications
Map of Rhodesia
Posts and Telecommunications
Rhodesia for the Tourist
Controlled Hunting Areas
Broadcasting and Television
Department of Immigration Promotion
Tourist Board Offices
The Land and its People
Rhodesia is situated in south central Africa between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. Bounded by Zambia on the north and north-west, by South Africa on the south, by Mozambique on the east and north-east, and on the south-west by Botswana, Rhodesia lies wholly to the north of the Tropic of Capricorn. It is part of the great plateau which is a major feature of the geography of southern Africa.
The area of Rhodesia is 150,820 square miles, about three times the size of England. The population density is approximately 30 per square mile.
Almost the whole of the country lies more than 1,000 ft. above sea-level. Four-fifths of it is above 2,000 ft. but less than a twentieth is above 5,000 ft.
The outstanding feature is the central plateau, known as the highveld, which is about 400 miles long by 50 miles wide. On either side of this is the middleveld which is between 2,000 and 4,000 ft. above sea-level. Deep river valleys have split the middleveld areas into great blocks of fine plateau country. The lowveld, below 2,000 ft., comprises a narrow strip in the Zambezi Valley and a broader tract between the Limpopo and Sabi rivers. The lowest point in the country, 660 ft. above sea-level, is where the Limpopo leaves the country.
Massive granite outcrops occur in various parts of Rhodesia, and along the eastern border is a high, mountainous region of great beauty, stretching for some 200 miles. Towards the north of this region, the country's highest mountain, Inyangani, stands 8,503 ft. above sea level.
Early railway development followed the line of the central plateau, on which the main towns—Salisbury, Bulawayo, Gwelo, Que Que, Gatooma, Fort Victoria and Umtali—now stand. The greatest development has naturally occurred in these areas, although in recent years there has been a shift of emphasis to more remote parts of the country, particularly thesouth-eastern lowveld—now often referred to simply as "the Lowveld".
The nearest point on the seaboard is the Indian Ocean port of Beira, 186 miles by rail from Umtali, in the Portuguese province of Mozambique. More recent railway development has resulted in the connexion of the Rhodesian system with the Mozambique port of Lourenco Marques.
Rhodesia Railways also serve the neighbouring territory of Botswana in the course of connecting with the South African system. From Bulawayo they branch northwards via Wankie and its coalfields to connect with the Zambian system where a great road and rail bridge spans the Zambezi within sight and sound of the magnificent Victoria Falls. The South African system crosses the Limpopo into Rhodesia at Beitbridgc but does not, so far, connect with the Rhodesian system at this point.
Nature has given Rhodesia one of the finest climates in the world; warm without being oppressive and with a daily average of bright sunshine ranging from four to 10 hours all the year round. The altitude of the country moderates the tropical temperatures which might be expected by reason of its latitude, while its inland position keeps the humidity comfortably low. Generally speaking, the days are bright and sunny, the nights clear and cool. Breezes temper the heat of October, while the remainder of the summer months are cooled by the seasonal rains. June and July are colder months, and at this time of the year, while the nights may be crisp the daylight hours are comparable with the most delightful of English spring days.
Among white Rhodesians, most European cultures are represented, although by far the greater part is able to trace its origin back to Britain or South Africa. There are smaller groups of persons of Asian (mainly Indian) ancestry and persons of mixed blood.
The indigenous population is of African (Bantu) origin, the main tribes being the various related peoples now known as Mashona, and the Matabele.
The total de facto population as at June, 1967, was estimated at 4,510,000. The approximate population (all races) of the main towns at that date was as follows:—
Salisbury: 360,000 .
Que Que: 20,600
Fort Victoria: 11,900
History and Government
The early history of Rhodesia has been pieced together by archaeologists and historians into a complexity of tribal movements and temporary supremacies, with limited Portuguese penetration from the east coast. Various ruins in Rhodesia, and in particular the great ruins at Zimbabwe, provide evidence of the existence of a society with a fair degree of civilization and military organization. Apart from the records of the Portuguese, however, there is little written evidence of the march of historical events before the 19th century. Livingstone's explorations in the 1850s—he first saw the Zambezi in 1851 and the Victoria Falls in 1855—reawakened the interest of Europeans in the region.
In the 1820s, Mzilikazi, one of Tshaka's generals, fled from Zululand (Natal) to escape the king's anger. After subjugating much of what is now the Transvaal, he led his followers across the Limpopo and settled at Ntabazinduna, near present-day Bulawayo—the first step in establishing Matabele power in what is now Rhodesia. From this base he carried out frequent raids on the less warlike Mashona tribes in the east and north.
On 26th December, 1859, the first permanent white settlement in Rhodesia, the Inyati Mission, was established by Robert Moffat. In 1870, Lobengula succeeded Mzilikazi and granted a further mission site at Hope Fountain. In 1887, the High Commissioner at the Cape, acting at the request of Cecil John Rhodes, sent J. S. Moffat, the Assistant Commissioner for Bechuanaland, to negotiate a treaty with Lobengula, and the following year Lobengula gave to Rhodes's emissaries the rights to all the minerals in his kingdom. This concession—the "Rudd Concession"— resulted, in 1889, in the formation by royal charter of the British South Africa Company to promote trade, commerce, civilization and good government in Mashonaland. Occupation of the area took place in 1890.
An uneasy truce prevailed between the pioneers and the Matabele. However, a punitive raid by a Matabele impi on Mashona in the Fort Victoria area led to the outbreak of the Matabele War in 1893. The war ended with the defeat of the Matabele by the Company's forces, the occupation of Matabeleland and the death of Lobengula in 1894. Rebellion broke out among the Matabele and the Mashona in 1896, peace being finally secured in 1897.
Thereafter, the British South Africa Company concentrated on the development of gold-mining, agricultural production and much-needed communications. Within 20 years it had provided both Northern and Southern Rhodesia with railway systems offering alternative outlets to the sea by way of the Cape or Beira. When the first period of Company rule expired in 1914, it was agreed that the Charter be extended for another 10 years, the Legislative Council retaining the right to petition the Crown for the grant of responsible government at any time during this period. The petition was presented in 1919 and, after discussions, it was agreed to hold a referendum in 1922.
The choice offered to voters was between responsible government and incorporation into South Africa as the Union's fifth province; 8,774 chose responsible government while 5,989 voted for incorporation. On 12th September, 1923, Rhodesia was formally annexed to the Crown by Order in Council. Nineteen days later, Letters Patent were issued constituting the country as a self-governing colony within the British Empire.
As a result of a series of conferences held in 1951 and 1953 on the closer association of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, a draft federal scheme was prepared and the Federation subsequently came into existence on 3rd September, 1953.
Opposition to the Federation, especially in the northern territories, was sustained over the following 10 years, and in April, 1963, the British Government announced that it accepted in principle that any of the territories constituting the Federation must be allowed, if it wished, to secede. The Federation was dissolved on 31st December, 1963.
In 1961, the last stage of constitutional progress prior to independence, in the form of a new Constitution widening the franchise for the special benefit of Africans while at the same time still further increasing the legislative powers of the Rhodesian Government, was endorsed by a referendum of voters in Rhodesia.
In 1965, Rhodesia became independent under a Constitution which preserved all the essential features of the 1961 Constitution.
Ever since the occupation, in 1890, Rhodesia has been solely responsible for the development of the country. Since 1923, Rhodesia has been self-governing: certain classes of legislative acts were reserved for the signification of the Sovereign's pleasure but Britain has never governed Rhodesia—nor has the British Parliament ever borne any responsibility to its electorate for the conduct of Rhodesian affairs.
The franchise is entirely non-racial. All 65 seats in Parliament are likewise open to anyone of any race. No rights are specially reserved for any one race or denied to any other.
In 1890, when the Pioneer Column entered Rhodesia to find less than half a million indigenous Africans eking out an existence by growing a few crops and keeping cattle, the country has advanced in a spectacular fashion. Today it has a widely diversified economy,supporting a population of over four and a half million.
The development of Rhodesia's economy took the form, to begin with, of mineral production for export, and agricultural production for local consumption and export. This was followed by the development of manufacturing industry, both in processing some of the country's chief exports and in supplying the home market.
The value of exports of Rhodesian products rose steadily over the years until 1965 when total domestic exports amounted to £142,455,000 compared with £47.233,000 in 1953.
In 1966, total exports (including re-exports and gold) amounted to £103,900,000 and imports were £84,700,000.
In 1966, the export promotional activities of the National Export Council and the Export Promotion Section of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry were supplemented by the establishment of a confirming house to provide facilities which were no longer available from overseas for the financing of imports of raw materials by industrialists. The Export Credit Insurance Corporation of Rhodesia Ltd. was also established in 1966, with the aim of encouraging exporters by making available facilities for reducing their export risks. Both these companies are flourishing.
WAGES AND SALARIES
Wages arc high in relation to the cost of living. A fitter and turner, for instance, averages 12s. per hour, a buyer in a large departmental store £100 to £150 per month, and a shorthand typist £50 to £75 per month or more. A newly qualified male teacher, as a non-graduate with three years' training, commences at £984 per annum, or, with an Honours degree and a teaching certificate, at £1,344.
Income tax is substantially lower than in Britain—for an income of £1,400 a year, a married man with two children would pay £17 in income tax.
FUTURE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT'S
The Lowveld, in the south-east of Rhodesia, has become an important growth point in the country's economy. There is considerable potential for further development in the area. Some 75,000 acres are now under irrigated cultivation, the main crops being sugar, wheat, cotton and citrus. Groundnuts, sorghum, rice, seed beans, bananas and burley tobacco are also produced in the area and both sheep and beef cattle are doing well. Total investment in the Lowveld by the end of 1967 was estimated at £37.5 million, of which £23.5 million was by private enterprise.
There are nearly 750,000 acres of irrigable soils in the Lowveld and it has been estimated that, with the full potential under irrigation, the area could support a population of 1.2 million.
Three major dams have already been completed and these provide sufficient water to irrigate
The Lowveld is served by a branch line connecting with the main railway line to Lourenco Marques.
During the two years since Independence there has been a tremendous increase in the volume and variety of goods produced by secondary industry; but there still remain many opportunities for enterprising people, particularly those who, through a specialized knowledge of industrial processes, can either adapt plant and machinery to the size of the local market or from knowledge of external markets can beneficially exploit the rich and varied resources of the country. Rhodesia has a wide range of valu- able metals and minerals, and the agricultural and forestry sectors are also well developed to provide rich and dependable sources of primary products for industrial processing into goods for internal and world markets. These circumstances also offer the external investor particular opportunities for developing industrial projects based on guaranteed or "captive" export markets.
The economic development of Rhodesia to date represents the combined efforts of all races which comprise its population and could not have been achieved in the few years of the country's history by any one race without the help of the others. It illustrates the foundation on which the future prosperity of the country is based.
Taxation in Rhodesia compares favourably with that of other countries.
Income tax rates are not high, and there are deductions for contributions to pension funds plus generous primary abatements and secondary abatements for dependants, insurance premiums and medical expenses. A P.A.Y.E. system of income tax collection operates in respect of employed persons. As to companies, the standard rate is 7s. 3d. in the £, and there are special incentives for investment and exports.
A personal tax is payable by individuals on a sliding scale ranging from £2 per annum to £12 per annum, depending upon income.
Death duties are relatively low by world standards, and are payable on a sliding scale rising to a maximum of 2s. 6d. in the £, which is reached on a taxable amount of approximately £42,000.
Stamp duties are imposed on many documents recording transactions between persons and on services provided at various registries. They include a transfer duty at the rate of £1 per cent, for the first £4,000 of the value of property transferred and £2 per cent, on the excess over £4,000.
Customs duties are imposed in a single column tariff on most goods imported into Rhodesia.
The duties cover protective duties for Rhodesian industries, and revenue duties over a wide range of consumer goods. Almost all raw materials for industry are free of duty, as are a wide variety of capital goods.
Excise duties are imposed on all wines, spirits, beer, cigarettes, manufactured tobacco, and motor spirit produced in Rhodesia.
A sales tax, levied mainly at the retail stage, is charged at the rate of 8d. in the £ on most goods, but there are a number of exemptions from this tax, notably for basic foodstuffs and for the raw materials and capital goods for industry.
Vehicle tax ranges from £12 per annum for ordinary passenger cars to £72 per annum for the heaviest public service vehicle (£144 if diesel-powered), and may be paid in three installments,
at the beginning of each licensing term of four months.
Other minor duties are imposed on trading activities, betting, and television and wireless receivers.
Local government taxation is confined principally to the field of rates on property.
Industries and Production
Rhodesia experiences a wide range of temperature, rainfall and soil conditions. Although most rain falls during the summer months (November to April), some parts of the country, particularly the mountainous regions, receive small falls during the winter months, and this widens the production possibilities. There is also a great potential for the production of irrigated crops during the dry months. Soils vary throughout the country; for the most part they are sandy and granite-based, but areas of heavy red and black soils are also found.
Recent years have been marked by an impressive development in the adoption of advanced production techniques. Starting from a firm policy of settling on the land large numbers of farmers with technical skills and financial resources, and aided by a wide range of Government assistance, agriculture has progressed to a point at which it contributes a major share of the country's exports and provides employment for a large proportion of the population. The commercial sector is advanced and the subsistence sector is now receiving a very large share of Government assistance in order to raise rural incomes and provide a market for secondary industry. Included in this effort are matters such as land tenure reform, credit and marketing facilities, education and extension, and the introduction of new crops and better seeds.
Services rendered by the Government include provision of crop and livestock research facilities; veterinary control and research services; extension and educational services; credit facilities through a Land Bank and other Government institutions (the private sector is also deeply involved in supplying credit); and marketing facilities. The last provide either for the purchase outright at fixed or floor prices (e.g., for grains, cattle and milk) or for regulatory control over marketing in order to maintain stability (e.g., for tobacco and pigs). The Government applies considerable protection for the home market's food and industrial requirements by way of tariffs, trade agreements and import and export controls; finance for the construction of major works such as dams and irrigation canals and their operation and control; and adequate roads and railways for the transport of agricultural produce.
There are several agricultural research stations, in different parts of the country, whose work in recent years has resulted in a substantial rise in yields of agricultural produce. Of these, the Tobacco Research Board's station near Salisbury is chiefly concerned with increasing the quality and output of tobacco from existing acreages, while the Government operates four major and a number of minor stations which cover the ecological pattern of the whole country.
There are two agricultural colleges, and the University College in Salisbury has an agricultural
Since Independence, events have occurred which have had a noticeable impact on the agricultural industry. Before 1966, approximately half of the gross output from the agricultural industry was derived from tobacco production. Although sanctions policies directed at the country have caused some hardship to the tobacco industry, the ultimate result has been a considerable reorientation of production which has created a broader and sounder base to the agricultural industry. A wide measure of agricultural diversification has taken place and the industry has entered a new and challenging era of development.
The major crops are maize, cotton, tobacco and sugar. Agricultural diversification has induced an expansion of livestock, cotton and oil-seed production in particular. Most crop production takes place during the growing period associated with the summer rains. However, the establishment of substantial acreages commanded by irrigation has enabled crop production to be extended throughout the year.
Prominent winter crops arc wheat, barley, potatoes, beans and vegetables. Maize is the principal subsistence crop. It provides the main component to domestic stockfeeds and a substantial export trade exists. Although maize cultivation takes place throughout the country, it is more suited to the higher rainfall regions in the north of the country.
High yields in these areas make for very efficient production, and commercial cultivators in the drier regions of the south are switching to sorghums, a drought-resistant grain crop for which suitable markets also exist.
Cotton production has shown a spectacular increase from 2 million lb. in 1960 to 54 million lb. of seed cotton in 1966. The larger proportion of the crop is hand-picked, and since this is relatively cleaner than machine-harvested cotton, it is well received by domestic spinning mills as well as on external markets. Within the last few years extensive acreages in the irrigated lowveld have been devoted to wheat production. In 1966 domestic production amounted to 10,000 tons, practically one-tenth of domestic needs. It is anticipated that within a few years the country will achieve a very large measure of self-sufficiency in wheat. Other crops of importance to the industry's recent agricultural development are tea, coffee, deciduous fruits, groundnuts and sunflower seed. These commodities provide the country with a large proportion of its domestic needs, though exports figure prominently in the marketing of tea, coffee and deciduous fruits. Efforts are being made to make the country self-sufficient in rice.
Rhodesia's cattle population amounts to some 3.5 million head—almost half of them owned by Africans. The annual production of beef amounts to over 70,000 tons. A Government Commodity Board provides an assured market outlet for all slaughter cattle, at fixed seasonal prices.
There is a thriving pig and poultry industry, which satisfies the local market requirements with small surpluses available for export. There has been a marked increase in the national sheep flock and mutton production is being encouraged. The country is practically self-sufficient in dairy products. Production amounts to well over 22 million gallons per annum, far in excess of whole milk requirements. A large proportion of the milk is diverted to industrial uses, such as the manufacture of butter, cheese and dried milk. The dairy industry also is served by a Commodity Board, which guarantees seasonal prices to milk producers and undertakes most of the wholemilk distribution and much of the industrial processing.
Indigenous forests in the north-west of the country yield mainly Rhodesian teak, which is used at home and abroad for railway sleepers and flooring. Over 2,000,000 acres of these forests are state-owned.
Afforestation on a large scale has taken place in the Eastern Districts, where the area of pine plantations to be established by the end of the century is 300,000 acres, of which the state's share will be 100,000 acres. To date, more than 124,000 acres have been planted, of which the state owns 33,000.
Some 62,000 acres of black wattle for tan-bark production have been established by private growers in the Eastern Districts.
Eucalyptus plantations occur widely over the country and total some 67,000 acres, more than three quarters of which are in Mashonaland. Some of the plantations arc in compact blocks, but a large proportion is in the form of farm woodlots. Of the total, approximately 3,500 acres are state-owned.
Great strides have been made in the manufacture of paper in Rhodesia and a substantial export market has been established for newsprint and wrapping-paper. A large plywood factory is in production in Umtali, and in 1967 a particle board plant was opened there, which uses some of the increasing volume of timber becoming available from the country's coniferous plantations.
Twenty sawmills, state-owned and private, operate in various parts of Rhodesia. State forests are managed in the country's interest by a Forestry Commission, formed in 1954.
During the early days, it was the lure of mineral wealth which brought people to Rhodesia. The main attraction was the vast deposits of gold believed to lie beneath Rhodesia's soil. No fabulous deposit was ever struck, but the country has been a steady producer ever since the early days. Current production has been worth nearly £7 million annually to the nation in recent years.
In fact, Rhodesia's mineral potential has proved far more exciting and diverse than the early gold seekers could have imagined. The mining industry now produces, as well as a variety of precious and semi-precious stones, some 34 different minerals and metals. Chief among these are asbestos, chrome ore, coal, copper, gold, iron ore, limestone, lithium minerals, phosphate rock and tin metal.
The value of production of asbestos exceeds that of any other mineral. In total production, Rhodesia ranks third in the world in respect of its output of chrysotile-type fibre, and its production of top-quality spinning fibre ranks amongst the highest in the world. Substantial capital outlays have been incurred recently by some of the large producing companies, in order to expand production and prove additional ore reserves.
Rhodesia's lithium ore industry is a major supplier to the world's consuming industries. Its resources of chrome ore are rated as among the largest in the world in respect of the metallurgical grade ore. Copper production, now worth more than £6 million annually, continues to expand, while tin is beginning to have a significant impact on the total value of mineral production.
Three nickel mines are in the process of being established under company operation.
The coal-mining industry is well established on the Wankie Coalfield at Wankie. The Wankie Colliery Company has been mining there since 1903, and current proved reserves are estimated at 500 million tons of saleable coking coal. This coalfield represents one of the principal resources of coking coal in Africa, and the growth of an export market is anticipated.
There are several other coal- fields in various parts of Rhodesia, and some of them have been explored to the extent of proving substantial reserves of coking and non-coking coal.
With Rhodesia's substantial reserves of iron ore, chromite, metallurgical limestone and other industrial minerals essential for the development of metallurgical processing and chemical industries, the opportunities are great. The availability of abundant power resources for industrial expansion thus makes Rhodesia one of the few countries in which essential minerals and electrical power are to hand in large quantities and awaiting exploitation.
The mining industry makes an important contribution to the nation's income and has a marked effect on levels of employment, railway traffic, manufacturing and the consumption of electricity. The increase in the value of mineral production in Rhodesia in recent years is shown in the following table:—
1950 £ 4615
1965 £ 8526
1950 £ 6344
1965 £ 6893
1950 £ 1219
1965 £ 2624
1965 £0 698
1950 £ 292
In 1966, the total rose to £32.6 million.
There are abundant reserves of high-grade iron ore to provide for the expansion of the local iron and steel indus- try as well as to supply ore for export. Rhodesia's steel industry is well established and has a substantial export market.
Precious and semi-precious stones, in the form of emeralds of exceptional quality, amethyst, aquamarine, chryso-beryl, topaz, jade and tourmaline, feature in the classification of other minerals.
Manufacturing industry has been making an increasing contribution to the gross domestic product each year. By 1965, it was equal to that of agriculture.
Very favourable conditions exist for the development of manufacturing industry. Apart from an abundance and variety of raw materials, Rhodesia has a stable economy, and cheap fuel and water supplies are available. Road, rail, air, postal, banking and financial services are efficient, reliable and comprehensive. Taxes are low and there are special incentives designed to encourage development.
Rhodesia has a free enterprise economy and the policy of minimum interference in the private sector is firmly entrcnchcd. To encourage sound industrial development the Government has adopted a vigorous policy of selective tariff protection which is assisted, in present circumstances, by import controls. The Industrial Development Corporation, established by Act of Parliament, is available to assist in the financing of worthwhile industrial projects.
There are few exchange control restrictions on external investors in Rhodesia. Such investors may bring money freely into the country, may repatriate the net earnings of their investments after meeting local expenses; and may withdraw their capital without hindrance. Projects initiated by outside investors involving local financial participation by the general public are welcomed.
Rhodesia is today one of the most highly industrialized countries in Africa, and the range of products manufactured continues to increase. Local industry has been given added stimulus by the imposition of sanctions and the consequent need to control imports. It is quite impossible to give a complete list of the great variety of individual products now being manufactured, processed or assembled in Rhodesia, but some of the more important groups of items are the following:—
Iron and steel products of all kinds, including agricultural implements, mining equipment and machinery, transformers, permanent way equipment and railway rolling stock; motor-lorry bodies; metal containers of every type; motor vehicle components; radios; foodstuffs and confectionery of all kinds; malt and spirituous liquors; cotton textiles and made-up goods, including printed piece goods, wadding, knitted fabric and twine and cordage; clothing and footwear of all kinds; wood products; paper, paper- board and cardboard; leather products and travel goods;rubber products, including motor vehicle tyres and tubes; jewellery; plastic toys; sports goods; fertilizers; pharmaceuticals; paints; bicycles and parts.
Recent notable industrial developments have occurred in cotton ginning, spinning, weaving and printing, and plans have been announced for the immediate construction of a £17 million nitrogen fertilizer complex.
THE NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD
Rhodesia enjoys a heritage of almost unrivalled natural resources. On their careful conservation and wise use the economic prosperity of the country depends. These natural resources—which may be broadly grouped into: soil; water; minerals; wild life; and trees, pastures and natural vegetation—are protected by law. An independent statutory body—the Natural Resources Board of Rhodesia—is responsible for seeing that these resources arc properly used and developed for the benefit of all.
Through the Board's organization, the country has been split into small potentially viable economic units known as Intensive Conservation Areas. Each of these areas, of which there are now nearly 200, is administered locally by a voluntary committee. In the Tribal Trust Lands, a number of Chief's Conservation Committees have been set up with the same general object in view. These committees enjoy the advice and service of the Natural Resources Board organization.
Services and Communications
Rhodesia's basic power requiremcnts are supplied at low cost from the Kariba hydroelectric undertaking, which is operated by the Central African Power Corporation.
The first stage of the Kariba project cost £78,000,000 and includes the south-bank power station of 705 megawatt capacity and the main transmission lines; but the lake and dam wall were designed to store and regulate sufficient water to operate a second power station of 900 megawatts sited on the north (the Zambian) bank.
The proposed Stage II development, therefore, which will also provide for substantial reinforcement of the 330,000 volt grid system, can be expected to cost very much less than Stage I, and should ensure the continuation of cheap hydro-electric power supplies.
Conditions of service for workers in industry are negotiated through the 24 industrial councils and 54 industrial boards established in terms of the Industrial Conciliation Act [Chapter 246].
This Act governs the registration of trade unions, employers' organizations, industrial councils conciliation and arbitration machinery and the right to strike.
The training of apprentices, including full-time technical training, and the responsibility for the development of the country's skilled manpower resources, devolves upon the Apprenticeship Training and Skilled Manpower Development Authority which is appointed in terms of new legislation. The costs of the technical training of apprentices may be met from the proceeds of a levy which is imposed on the employers of journeymen in designated trades. Health and safety in industry are safeguarded through the Factories and Works Act [Chapter 229].
The Workmen's Compensation Insurance Fund, administered by the Government, provides for compensation for workers who are temporarily or permanently disabled by accidents or disease contracted in the course of, and arising from, employment, or from death resulting from such accidents or disease. Rehabilitation facilities for injured workmen have until now been provided on a restricted basis but this year will see the introduction of extended facilities which should fulfil the country's requirements forsome time to come.
Increased economic activity after the Second World War resulted in large-scale immigration into Rhodesia and a huge influx of workers into the towns. Housing of all types was in short supply and this was, for several years, the limiting factor in the country's economic advance.
In recent years, tremendous strides have been made in the provision of low-cost housing by both the Government and the local authorities; while in the home-ownership sector the Government has introduced schemes on a lease and-instalment basis payable over periods up to 25 years.
During the past decade, something of the order of £30 million has been spent on housing for Africans.
Provision of houses for the expanding white population caught up with demand towards the end of the period of the federal experiment, and this was largely assisted by the development, on a sound basis, of local building societies, through whom a prospective home-owner may obtain a substantial mortgage loan.
There was a lull in building activity for a year or two in the main centres, but now the suburbs of Salisbury, Bulawayo and other centres reflect a resurgence of home building.
The trend since the war has been for the older type of Rhodesian house with wide all-round verandas to be replaced by smaller modern houses standing in colourful semi-tropical gardens where hibiscus, frangipani and bougainvillea grow side by side with familiar cottage flowers.
Rented accommodation is now very much in demand. Monthly rent charges for bachelor flats are in the vicinity of £15 to £22 10s. and for two-bedroomed flats £25 to £35. In most suburbs a three-bedroomed house with garden and amenities may be rented at £30 to £45 or more per month. Houses on stands varying in size from one-sixth to one acre may be purchased at prices ranging from £3,750 to £6,500 and upwards if desired. Domestic staff is readily available and is usually accommodated in a self-contained unit on the property. Good quality furniture is
made locally and may be purchased on reasonable terms. Most modern flats and houses have built-in cupboards and fitted kitchens.
The statutory bodies spend large sums of money on housing for their African staff. The big mining companies provide houses of good standard for their employees, and the major municipalities have built large townships, complete with schools, shops, banks, Government offices, hospitals, clinics, churches, places of entertainment and other cultural and social amenities.
The Government and local authorities have spent millions of pounds on amenities (other than essential services) in African townships. Some of the finest sporting and
recreational facilities in Rhodesia are to be found in the African townships, and these include swimming pools, sports stadia, cycle race-tracks, football fields and tennis courts.
The Ministry of Roads and Road Traffic is responsible for 5,270 miles of roads throughout Rhodesia. Of these, 2,031 miles are two-lane bituminized highways and another 765 miles are single-lane bituminized roads. There are 374 miles of tarred-strip roads, and 2,100 miles of gravel-and-earth roads. A further 14,829 miles of district and rural roads are maintained by local road councils, and about 40,000 miles come under other authorities.
The cities and major towns are connected, or are in the process of being connected, by two-lane highways. In the rural areas, lines of communication are provided by secondary roads, most of which are all-weather roads and fully signposted.
Modern control methods and the application of traffic engineering principles speed the flow of traffic in the cities and suburban areas.
Rhodesia Railways, a statutory corporation, serves both Rhodesia and Botswana: 2,029 miles of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge railway track connect with Zambia, South Africa and Mocambique.
The major airports are the international airports at Salisbury and Bulawayo and those at Victoria Falls, Kariba, Buffalo Range (in the Lowveld) and Fort Victoria.
Air Rhodesia, the national airline, in addition to providing domestic services connecting the main towns, also provides scheduled services to Johannesburg and Durban in the Republic of South Africa, to Blantyre in Malawi, to Lourenco Marques, Beira and Vilanculos in Mozambique, and to Mauritius.
International services to Europe and Britain are provided by most major airlines, either directly or in connexion with the local services. There are also, within Rhodesia, a number of smaller companies engaged in charter operations, flying instruction, air survey and crop spraying.
POSTS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS
Postal, telegraph and telephone services are controlled and operated by the Ministry of Posts. The services provided are of a standard which compares favourably with those of many more advanced and older countries.
Post offices and agencies provide facilities in all significant centres of population and full use is
made of available resources for the conveyance of mails. Daily international flights provide airmail services to most parts of the world
At all full departmental post offices (of which there are 132), facilities exist for the transaction of postal order, money order, savings bank and telegraph business as well as letter, packet and parcel business. There are another 80 subordinate agencies, at which restricted facilities are available. Registration services are provided to all destinations, while insured and cash-on delivery parcels are accepted for internal delivery and to several other countries.
Rhodesia provides a highly efficient telephone service with a tariff that is among the lowest in the world. The number of telephones in use as at 31st December, 1967, was 112,084. Telephone exchanges in the major centres are fully automatic and, elsewhere, operators provide a 24 hour service. Subscriber-trunk-dialling facilities enable subscribers with direct lines to automatic exchanges to make long-distance calls to many parts of Rhodesia and Zambia without the aid of an operator. Modern carrier systems furnish rapid access to contiguous countries, and communication with some 90 international destinations is available over the Salisbury-London radiotelephone link.
Telex service is available in the main centres. Subscribers in Rhodesia are able to communicate with each other direct, and calls to Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, South West Africa, Great Britain and other overseas countries may be booked through the telex exchanges at Bulawayo and Salisbury.
The World Health Organization's reports on the world health situation consistently show that Rhodesia is among the leading coutries in Africa in the provision of health services.
With one fully qualified and practising medical practitioner for every 9,300 inhabitants of all races in the country and with nearly four hospital beds for every 1,000 of the population, Rhodesia's curative services are greatly in advance of those of most African territories, the only major exception being the Republic of South Africa.
Preventive services, also, are well developed, and the country participates in all the health programmes sponsored by the World Health Organization, including its smallpox eradication campaign, in connexion with which the health services of the Government and local authorities perform close on a million vaccinations every year, thus covering the entire population in a period of some four years.
Although malaria is still endemic in some of the lower-lying rural areas, it has virtually ceased to exist in the main centres of population. A programme to control and finally eradicate the disease in the remaining areas of the country is under way. Rhodesia has achieved world recognition for its research activities into other endemic diseases of Africa, such as bilharziasis.
There are 128 hospitals, clinics and health centres operated by the Ministry of Health in Rhodesia and, in addition, 67 hospitals are operated by medical missions with Government grants-in-aid. In the main centres, there are a number of private hospitals and nursing homes.
In the major Government hospitals of Salisbury and Bulawayo, a full range of specialist services is available, including cardio-thoracic surgery, neuro-surgery and advanced radio-therapy.
Local authorities provide clinic services and accommodation for infectious disease, which is, however, infrequent in the main urban areas. The epidemic diseases such as typhus, cholera and plague are non-existent in Rhodesia. Both Government and local authority medical units provide preventive inoculations against common infectious diseases such as whooping cough, diphtheria, tuberculosis and poliomyelitis.
Charges raised by the Ministry's hospitals are moderate and sub-economic, and the existence of well-organized medical aid schemes ensures that the breadwinner of every family can provide for his medical expenses at very little cost.
Statistics of births and deaths among the African population are still incomplete. Among the white population of Rhodesia, the death rate in 1966 was 6.5 per 1,000 of population, which may be compared with a death rate of 11.7 per 1,000 in England and Wales.
The Ministry of Education, which administers education generally throughout Rhodesia, is in two Divisions. One deals with European, Asian and Coloured education, and the other wholly with African education. Each side of the Ministry is served by professional officers who have made a specialized study of the problems peculiar to their own Division. Two of the educational services provided are, however, common to both Divisions—the audio-visual services, and the organization dealing with school buildings and supplies.
No distinction is made between the races in the sphere of further education, members of all races studying together at technical colleges and at the University. In this sphere, there are two colleges offering full-time instruction in a wide range of industrial, commercial, technical and adult education subjects, and both of them provide hostel facilities. In addition, there are several technical institutions in the smaller towns which offer evening and part time instruction. Rhodesian students may follow university courses at the University College of Rhodesia in Salisbury, which is in a special relationship with the University of London and awards London degrees, or at universities in South Africa or in the United Kingdom.
For children of the European, Asian and Coloured communities in Rhodesia, education is compulsory between the ages of seven and 15. However, children may be admitted to school at an earlier age, provided they are not less than five years old on 31st January in the year of admission.
The primary course lasts seven years and covers two infants' substandards and Standards 1 to 5. Entry to secondary schools is not controlled by any selection examination and primary schools, arc therefore, not obliged to follow curricula dictated by the needs of any examination. However, the Ministry provides recommended syllabuses and suggestion pamphlets for the guidance of heads and teachers.
Special provision is made for the education of the physically and mentally handicapped.
All the secondary schools, with the exception of two technical high schools, are comprehensive in character. Transfer to these schools is normally at the age of 12-plus, the intake being "streamed" on the basis of assessed potential. Streaming is by no means rigid and the system is kept flexible to permit transfer from one stream to another.
The academic stream, normally about half of the intake, follows a curriculum leading to the General Certificate of Education examination at "O" level. Of the pupils who take this examination, about 50 per cent, enter a sixth form with the intention of qualifying for entrance to a university. For this purpose, they may proceed to a G.C.E. at "A" level after a two-year course, or, if they wish to enter a South African University, they, may qualify by taking an SM" (matriculation) level examination at the end of one year.
Pupils on the general secondary side may enter for the College of Preceptors examination, which makes provision for commercial and technical subjects.
The two technical high schools admit only boys who have passed a special entrance test. The curriculum differs from that of other high schools, in being rather narrower and placing more emphasis on workshop practice and technical drawing.
All schools have well-equipped libraries and offer a variety of cultural activities, as well as a wide range of sporting facilities. Music clubs, orchestras, dramatic societies, printing clubs, chess clubs and debating societies are some of the extra-curricular activities available.
The aim of the secondary school system is not only to enable the pupil to obtain the highest academic achievement of which he is capable, but also to turn him out as a well-balanced young citizen, prepared to take an active part in the community life of his country.
The Ministry has an educational psychologist in each of its regions, whose services are available to the secondary schools, but who also tests each primary pupil as a matter of course, and recommends remedial action for those not functioning to their full capacity.
Teacher-training is available at the Teachers' College, Bulawayo, and the diploma awarded is that of the Institute of Education at the University College. The course is usually of three years' duration and qualifies the student to teach in the primary school and the lower forms of the secondary school.
School programmes are broadcast regularly throughout the school term on radio and television, and each school is equipped with a full range of audio-visual aids.
In addition to the 34 secondary schools and 148 primary schools within the European, Asian and Coloured educational system, the Government makes grants-in-aid to 48 private schools.
Vacation and in-service courses organized by the inspectorate are a regular feature of the system and enable teachers to keep in touch with the latest developments in education at both primary and secondary level.
The Division of African Education administers educational facilities for more than 695,000 African school children. Under the existing system, children in the primary, schools receive a five-year course, and more than 40 per cent, of those who complete this course then receive a further three years of schooling in the upper primary classes—but this pattern will gradually change under the new plan for African education, which is outlined below.
Nine out of every 10 of the children in African schools are in the rural areas, and most of the schools in these areas are, at present, run by various religious and missionary organizations with the help of Government grants (the teachers' salaries, for instance, are all paid by the Government). The African Education Vote for the year 1967-68 amounts to £7.464 million and accounts for nearly 11 per cent, of total Government expenditure from revenue funds. In the towns, most of the schools are Government schools, and provision is made for all the children of parents resident in the African townships to receive the full eight years of primary education.
At Standard 6 level there is an examination to select the pupils most likely to benefit from secondary education. About one in five of those completing Standard 6 enter an academic secondary school and spend two years preparing for the junior certificate examination, the ablest continuing for a further two years to the Cambridge school leaving examination. A small but increasing number proceed to sixth form work in preparation for university entrance.
The new plan for African education, implementation of which is being spread over 10 years, envisages full primary education (of seven years, as in European schools, instead of the existing eight) for every African child able to reach a school by 1969 (or certainly not later than 1972). The previous target date for full primary education was 1974. The barrier at Standard 3 (to become Grade 5 under the new system) will disappear and all children will be encouraged to complete the whole primary course.
An even more important aspect of the new plan is the proposed expansion in secondary education, providing for 12| per cent, of all pupils completing primary school to proceed to a full four-year course of academic secondary education, with the further opportunity of sixth form work and university entrance; and another 37i per cent, to be accommodated in junior secondary schools providing a two year course to a junior certificate and the qualification for apprenticeship.
Thus, one in every two pupils from a much enlarged primary school output will have the opportunity to receive secondary education of one sort or another. The lower 50 per cent, of those completing the primary course will not be debarred from further study, for the Government has promised every assistance possible in the way of the provision of mentors and the use of available classrooms to those who wish to continue their education- by correspondence tuition.
Parents, of all races, are required to contribute towards the cost of their children's education, but fees—apart from those in private schools, where they are roughly equivalent to those in Britain—are low.
The social welfare service includes the care and protection of minors, probation work, the supervision of juvenile delinquents, the rehabilitation of deviate adults, including alcoholics, the care of the aged and physically handicapped, the relief of distress and the encouragement and co-ordination of voluntary services. There are also various institutions established and conducted directly by the Department of Social Welfare.
Private institutions for children and the aged are encouraged and given financial support by the Government. Other welfare services, including the provision of sports facilities, baby clinics and creches, and instruction in homecraft, are promoted by municipalities, voluntary societiesand employers.
There are numerous homecraft clubs, women's clubs, youth clubs and associations, and health associations which cater for various needs.
The rapid growth of population and the development of industry, agriculture and mining have led to a great increase in the country's water consumption. The planning and development of water resources have always been regarded as of prime importance by the Rhodesia Government. It is as a result of this policy that all the major towns have adequate supplies to meet the foreseeable demands of industry and population for some years to come.
In the rural areas, the construction of dams and boreholes has been encouraged by the provision of expert technical advisory services and by financial inducements. Today., there are many thousands of small dams and boreholes throughout the country, each adding to Rhodesia's water resources and improving the watering facilities for human and animal consumption and for small irrigation schemes.
Much thought has been given to the possibilities of developing irrigation to introduce a greater degree of certainty into crop production. The success of smaller irrigation schemes has led to the planning and introduction of more ambitious schemes, and development continues. In 1950, there were 15,000 acres under irrigation in Rhodesia; today there are nearly 120,000
Much of the recent development has taken place in the south-eastern lowveld. Until recent years, this large area had been used only for cattle ranching. In 1957, the first major step was taken in the development of the area by the start of the Kyle Bangala dam and canal complex. Today, about 60,000 acres of sugar-cane are irrigated from this scheme, making Rhodesia, whose requirements of sugar previously were met almost wholly by imports, entirely self-supporting in this commodity. In 1965, the Manjirenji dam on the Chiredzi River was completed, which will permit a further 20,000 acres to be brought under irrigation. Last year (1967) 4,700 acres of wheat (another crop in respect of which Rhodesia was almost wholly reliant on imports) was grown successfully under spray irrigation, and the area is being expanded considerably.
The rapid expansion of agriculture in this area is being followed by the development of secondary industry. To co-ordinate development in the Lowveld, the Government has appointed the Sabi-Limpopo Authority, with planning and integration responsibilities.
Several further major irrigation projects are at present under investigation in the area.
Rhodesia for the Tourist
During 1967, more than 238,000 tourists visited Rhodesia.
Positive proof that Rhodesia is a major tourist centre, this figure was achieved because the country offers a variety of scenery, one of the continent's finest and largest concentrations of wild life, a perfect climate (an average throughout the year of over hours' sunshine daily), a high standard of accommodation, and a comprehensive network of road, rail and air communications.
These facts, taken together with the natural friendliness of the Rhodcsian, the lack of commercialization, the spaciousness of the landscape and the uncrowded tourist centres, provide an almost unbeatable combination which assures the visitor that a holiday in Rhodesia will be the holiday of a lifetime.
At present, petrol is subject to rationing in Rhodesia. Supplies are adequate, however, and visitors who wish to tour by car may be assured that they will be made welcome and provided with sufficient petrol coupons to meet their holiday needs.
THE VICTORIA FALLS
Few visitors to Rhodesia fail to see the Victoria Falls, the greatest waterfall in the world. Here the Zambezi,
Over a mile wide, plunges into a 350-foot-deep chasm which runs right across the path of the river. Huge clouds of spray rise hundreds of feet as the power of this mighty waterway is checked and constricted in the narrow gorge. Discovered by David Livingstone in 1855, the Falls and the surrounding area have been declared a National Park, to preserve the area from excessive commercialization. A few miles upstream from the Falls is the Victoria Falls Game Park, which provides the visitor with glimpses of elephant, hippo, crocodile, zebra and many other species, including the largest herds in Rhodesia of the rare sable antelope. Visitors occupy their sunny days with launch trips on the river, flights in small planes to photograph the Falls from the air, viewing the Falls from its many vantage points and a walk through the luxuriant growth of the Rain Forest, which is kept perpetually wet by falling spray. After an exhilarating day in the open air, the excitement of roulette or chemin-de-fer in the luxury casino provides a suitable climax. Accommodation at the Falls can be obtained at two hotels or at the National Parks rest camps—all within earshot of the roaring waters. The Victoria Falls can be reached daily by air and rail services or by road.
The magnificent spectacle of African wild life is another factor in Rhodesia's tourist success. No one can fail to be moved or excited by the sight of a herd of elephant moving with ponderous grace to a waterhole, or rolling in mud-baths like children at play, a lion moving stealthily in pursuit of its quarry, herds of skittish wildebeeste or neat zebra, or the see-saw gallop of giraffe.
As one of the most progressive countries in Africa in the field of wild life management, Rhodesia has reserved thousands of square miles for the conservation of one of the world's largest remaining concentrations of animal life.
The Wankie National Park
In the north-western part of the country, just south of the Victoria Falls, provides a sanctuary for all the major species of wild life. From the comfort of a motor-car or the convenience of an observation platform at one of the principal waterholes, the visitor can view a variety of game.
In this vast game reserve are some of the largest herds of the huge African elephant and buffalo on the continent. There are more than 50 species of animal in the park, including lion, eland, giraffe, rhino, zebra, sable, kudu and waterbuck. Comfortable thatched cottages are situated in three camps in the park, all of which are served by licensed restaurants. In addition to travel by private car, visitors may make use of a four-times-a-week air service which lands in the heart of the reserve, at Main Camp, or travel by rail to the nearby siding of Dett.
Mana Pools Game Reserve
On the shores of the mile-wide Zambezi, 80 miles below Kariba Dam, provides the visitor with the opportunity to camp under the stars. Development in this area has been kept to a minimum, so that the visitor may, experience the atmosphere of un-spoilt Africa. In the dry season, the numerous pools of the flood plain attract animals from many miles across the parched woodland—providing a most varied concentration of wild life. The less adventurous visitor may enjoy this experience from the comfort of the Mana Tree Lodge, an hotel in the trees overlooking the nearby river.
Kyle National Park,
Near Fort Victoria and Zimbabwe National Park, is one of the most beautiful in the country. Surrounded by mountains and on the shores of beautiful Lake Kyle, the park provides luxury accommodation for the traveller. Antelope, giraffe, buffalo and hippo can be seen there, but the park is especially noted for the rarer type of animal—white rhino, oribi, nyala and Lichtenstein's hartebeest.
Even near the towns and cities, wild life may be found. In the Rhodes Matopos National Park, near Bulawayo, and the Robert McIIwaine National Park, near Salisbury, white rhino, giraffe, zebra, eland, sable, wildebeest, kudu, and many other species can be seen.
The ideal time for game viewing in Rhodesia is from July to October. Rain is almost unknown then and, because vegetation is less dense, the game is more easily seen. During the rest of the year some reserves are closed but, in the Wankie National Park, Main Camp and Sinamatella remain open all the year round, as do Kyle, McIIwaine and the Matopos parks.
One of the great engineering achievements of the century, the construction of the 400-foot-high Kariba Dam, has tamed the strength of the great Zambezi and created one of the world's largest man-made lakes. On the shores of the 2,000-square-mile lake, picturesque resorts play host to visitors who come to sail, water-ski, sunbathe, or fish for the fighting tiger fish for which Kariba has become famous.
Near Fort Victoria, in the southern part of the country, is the greatest historical riddle in Central Africa—the Zimbabwe Ruins. Many have been the speculations about the origin of this great complex of walls and passages constructed without the aid of mortar. Solomon's Mines, the Arabs, the Phoenicians—all have been mentioned— and the truth may yet prove to be stranger than fiction. A museum on the site displays the results of archaeological excavations.
Within sight of the Ruins is a National Parks rest camp with a nine-hole golf course and two hotels.
Zimbabwe is not the only puzzle Rhodesia boasts, for in the hills of Inyanga are the pit and walls, forts and terraces of a long-dead people. Many other strange ruins are scattered over Rhodesi —Khami, Dhlo-Dhlo, Nalatale, Nyahokwe—old names that echo a mysterious past.
Before the first Bantu swept down from the north, there lived in Rhodesia a Stone Age people who have perished but for a pocket or two in the remotest places. They left behind them, on the walls of caves and shelters, their paintings—spiky, graceful figures; hunting scenes; and sensitive animal portraits.
An area noted for its beauty is the Eastern Highlands, along the Rhodesian border with Mozambique. The main gateway to the highlands is Umtali, which lies cupped within the mountains. A short drive away is the scenic Vumba, an area of ancient forests, sub-tropical plants and arrays of ferns and flower gardens at the Vumba National Park. North of Umtali is Inyanga, a region of mountains, waterfalls, and rushing trout streams. Visitors can walk amidst magnificent scenery, play golf, fish and enjoy the mountain air. Accommodation is provided at National Parks rest cottages and at fine hotels.
South of Umtali is Melsetter, facing the imposing Chimanimani Mountains. The mountain area here is famous for its unique range of plants and flowers.
CONTROLLED HUNTING AREAS
Hunting is not only a popular sport but also helps to keep down surplus game population. In some areas, controlled hunting is essential to proper wild life management.
There are several controlled hunting areas in the Zambezi Valley below Kariba Dam, where elephant, buffalo, lion, leopard and all species of antelope are to be found. Many of these may be hunted by arrangement with the Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management.These hunting areas are normally open from the beginning of May to the end of September, and cater for approximately 200 hunters a year. Non-hunters may view and photograph game in the adjacent game reserves, fish in the Zambezi River, or merely enjoy the magnificent scenery.
For the particular benefit of visitors from abroad, there is a controlled hunting area adjacent to the northern and eastern boundaries of the Wankie National Park. This area offers most species of big game and a variety of smaller species. A hunting safari in the area can be combined with game-viewing and photography in the Wankie National Park and sightseeing at the world famous Victoria Falls. In addition, special fishing trips can be arranged on the upper reaches of Lake Kariba.
The other controlled hunting area open to the public is situated at Tuli, in the south-west of Rhodesia. This area can accommodate approximately 40 hunters for periods of 10 days during the open season from 1st May to 30th September.
After the rural life, most visitors look forward to the sophisticated pleasures of shopping, good food and a night out. They will certainly want souvenirs; Rhodesian gemstones made into beautiful jewellery, local copperware, articles made from antelope and zebra skin, and African carvings in wood and soapstone are only a few of the range available. They will also enjoy the food and wines of restaurants and night clubs, dancing, cabaret or a visit to the theatre or an air-conditioned cinema.
Is the capital of Rhodesia, and its largest city. Although a commercial and industrial centre, the flowering trees, colourful parks and contemporary architecture lend an air of spaciousness. Local sightseeing includes the modern museum, the Rhodes National Gallery, the Robert McIIwaine National Park with its lake and game reserve, the landscaped gardens of aloes and cycads at Ewanrigg National Park, the citrus estates at Mazoe and the Balancing Rocks.
Is Rhodesia's second city, and a major industrial centre. The city is rich in historical associations and is the home of the National Museum. Nearby are the ancient Khami Ruins, while to the south is the Matopos where Cecil Rhodes's grave stands on the summit of a granite hill called "View of the World". Huge formations of granite boulders, dams with excellent fishing, caves with rock paintings and a well-stocked game park make this area popular with visitors.
Is the eastern gateway to Rhodesia, and centre of the mountain range along the border with Mozambique. An important distribution and industrial centre, it is an ideal starting point for visits to Inyanga, the Vumba and the Chimanimani Mountains.
The oldest town in Rhodesia, was established by the Pioneers as they trekked northwards. The Zimbabwe Ruins lie a few miles to the south, and also nearby is Lake Kyle with its game reserve.
A full range of accommodation is available in the cities, while, at the principal tourist resorts, there are hotels of good standard built to conform with their surroundings. Along tourist routes and in country, towns there are comfortable hotels whose tariffs are very reasonable. In the rest camps of national parks, visitors are accommodated in charming thatched cottages.
Daily air services link Rhodesia with the rest of the world, landing at Salisbury, the main international airport, and at Bulawayo. Within the country, the national airline operates a comprehensive network of regular flights between Salisbury, Bulawayo, Fort Victoria, the Lowveld, Kariba, Wankie, and the Victoria Falls. Charter companies also offer flights at reasonable costs to all main airports and to many landing fields not served by the major airline.
Inter-city and inter-territorial roads are of first-class standard, and all tourist centres are linked by tarred roads. A wide range of package and individual tours is provided by experienced operators, who also offer self-drive car-hire at all main centres. A luxury coach service operates through Rhodesia, connecting with Johannesburg to the south and Ndola to the north.
Rhodesia Railways link the main centres of Rhodesia and connect with the rail systems of the neighbouring countries of South Africa, Mozambique and Zambia. A fast diesel-car service operates between Salisbury, the capital, and Umtali, the centre of the Eastern Highlands. All main passenger trains have full dining-car facilities and sleeper accommodation.
Tourist information, coloured brochures and maps can be obtained from any Rhodesia National Tourist Board officer (addresses on page 53). Information of a more local character can be obtained from publicity associations in the main centres (addresses on page 52).
Broadcasting and Television
Broadcasting is in the hands of the Rhodesia Broadcasting Corporation, a statutory body set up by Act of Parliament under which it operates as an autonomous and independent body. There are transmitters at Salisbury, Bulawayo and Gwelo, the last being the main short-wave station. There are also smaller transmitters at Umtali, Gatooma, Que Que and Fort Victoria. Hours of transmission are approximately from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. daily.
Television has proved popular in the areas served by the two transmitters and it is hoped to extend the coverage. Normal television transmission times are from 5.30p.m. to 10.30 p.m.
A combined sound and television licence costs £6 annually. A radio licence (sound only) costs £2, but concessionary licences costing 10s. may be issued to certain classes of persons in
A Young country such as Rhodesia, which prides itself on the sturdy independence of its people and the encouragement of private enterprise, needs many thousands of skilled immigrants as well as new industry with capital to invest, if the development of its rich potential is to be developed to the full.
Employment and investment opportunities are among the brightest in the Commonwealth. Rhodesia welcomes skills and talents, and in a land of abundant natural resources, blessed with a superb climate, there is opportunity for all.
THE DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION PROMOTION
Requests for information on immigration procedures and advice on benefits under the Assisted Passages Scheme (which are available to those whose skills are urgently required in the national interest) and on other immigration matters, should be addressed to the Department of Immigration Promotion, Private Bag 711, Causeway, Salisbury, Rhodesia.
Offices of the Department are situated on the Ninth Floor, Ambassador House, Union Avenue, Salisbury (Telephone 26617), and on the Seventh Floor, Cement House, Main Street, Bulawayo (Telephone 62909).
The Welcome to Rhodesia Association, a voluntary organization (c/o Salisbury Women's Institute, Second Street, P.O. Box 8264, Causeway, Salisbury—Telephone 23989), also assist new arrivals, and is able to advise on many domestic problems, such as accommodation, transport, schools, hospitals, clubs and sporting associations, churches, and so on.
All immigrants should apply for a residence permit issued by the Immigrants' Selection Board, Private Bag 711, Causeway, Salisbury. There is, however, no objection to applications for residence permits being made by persons after entry as tourists or visitors, provided applicants are able to comply with standard immigration requirements.
The Immigration Act, 1966, and attendant regulations, requires that all immigrants should be—
(a) in possession of a valid passport, or other approved document of identity;
(b) in sound physical and mental health, and certified free from active pulmonary tuberculosis. A radiological certificate must be obtained to this effect in respect of all members of the family (except infants, three years and under), either before departure or on arrival. It is, therefore, in the immigrant's interest to ensure that radiological examination is undertaken before departure;
(c) literate in at least one European language;
(d) of good character.
On arrival, persons other than British subjects, or British protected persons, or citizens of the Republic of Ireland, are required to register with the Chief Registration Officer (Department of Immigration Control, Private Bag 717, Causeway, Salisbury—Telephone 27736), in terms of the Aliens Act, 1966. Aliens require visas in certain cases.
Visitors to Rhodesia are always welcome. A visitor must have a valid passport, and is issued with an entry permit on arrival. Permits are normally valid for six months, but may be extended for a further six months.
A visitor must have sufficient funds for maintenance and return facilities to his country of domicile, and he may not engage in employment for gain during his stay without a temporary employment permit. Any queries should be made to the Department of Immigration Control, Private Bag 717, Causeway, Salisbury (Telephone 27736).
THE Reserve Bank of Rhodesia is situated in Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 1283).
Other banks conducting business in Rhodesia are as follows:
Barclays Bank D.C.O.: Head office, corner Manica Road/Inez Terrace, Salisbury (P.O. Box 1279), with branches throughout Rhodesia.
National and Grindlays Bank Limited: Main Rhodesian branch, 64 Baker Avenue, Salisbury (Private Bag 191H), with branches in the main centres.
Netherlands Bank of Rhodesia Limited: Head office, corner Angwa Street/Baker Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 3198), with branches in the main centres.
Ottoman Bank: 59 Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 2700).
The Standard Bank Limited: Head office, corner Second Street/Baker Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 373), with branches throughout Rhodesia.
Merchant Bank of Central Africa Limited: Century HouseWest, Baker Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 3200).
Rhodesian Acceptances Limited: Pearl Assurance House, Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 2786).
THE LAND BANK
Land and Agricultural Bank of Rhodesia: Third Street, Salisbury (P.O. Box 369), with branches in Bulawayo, Gwelo, Umtali, Gatooma, Marandellas and Sinoia.
Savings bank facilities are provided by the Post Office Savings Bank (head office, Lonrho House, Union Avenue, P.O. Box 2476, Salisbury), the commercial banks, and three building societies with branches in the main centres.
Some Useful Addresses
Ministry of Information, Immigration and Tourism: Milton Building, Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 8232, Causeway).
Ministry of Commerce and Industry: Milton Building, Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (Private Bag 708, Causeway).
Ministry of Mines and Lands: Compensation House, Fourth Street/Central Avenue, Salisbury (Private Bag 709, Causeway).
Ministry of Agriculture: Coghlan Building, Fourth Street, Salisbury (Private Bag 701, Causeway).
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare: Compensation House, Fourth Street/Central Avenue, Salisbury (Private Bag 707, Causeway).
Ministry of Education: Ambassador House, Union Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 8024, Causeway).
Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management: Central House, Central Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 8365, Causeway).
National Archives: Borrowdale Road, Salisbury (P.O. Box 8043, Causeway).
Controller of Customs and Excise: Cecil House, Stanley Avenue, Salisbury (Private Bag 715, Causeway).
Automobile Association of Rhodesia:
Salisbury Area Office, Fanum House, 57 Jameson Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 700, Salisbury).
Bulawayo Area Office, First Floor, Treger House, Abercorn Street, Bulawayo (P.O. Box 910).
Gwelo Area Office, Rothbart Building, Sixth Street, Gwelo (P.O. Box 412).
Umtali Area Office, Tanganda House, Victory Avenue, Umtali (P.O. Box 239).
CHAMBERS OF INDUSTRIES
Association of Rhodesian Industries (ARnI): Friern House,7 Speke Avenue, Salisbury, and Sanlam Building, 10th Avenue/Fife Street, Bulawayo.
Bulawayo Chamber of Industries: Secretaries, R. E. Clark & Co., Sanlam Building, 10th Avenue/Fife Street, Bulawayo (P.O. Box 1776, Bulawayo).
Central African Textile Manufacturers' Association: Sanlam Building, 10th Avenue/Fife Street,
Midlands Chamber of Industries (covering several towns in the Midlands of Rhodesia):
Secretaries, C. Rampf & Co., 108 Rabyne House, Fifth Street, Gwelo (P.O. Box 142, Gwelo).
Salisbury Chamber of Industries: Friern House, 7 Speke Avenue, Salisbury.
Umtali Chamber of Industries: Secretary, Colonel H. G. Seward, c/o British Motor Corporation, 17 Melsetter Road, Umtali (P.O. Box 631, Umtali).
CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE
Associated Chambers of Commerce of Rhodesia: 47 Gordon Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 1934, Salisbury).
Bindura Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 32, Bindura.
Bulawayo Chamber of Commerce: 8th Avenue, Bulawayo (P.O. Box 1292, Bulawayo).
Gatoomn Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 67, Gatooma.
Gwelo Chamber of Commerce: 108 Rabyne House, Fifth Street, Gwelo (P.O. Box 142, Gwelo).
Hartley Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 120, Hartley.
Karoi Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 115, Karoi.
Marandellas Chamber of Commerce: c/o Eades, James & Co., The Green, Marandellas (P.O. Box 53, Marandellas).
Que Que Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 3, Que Que.
Salisbury Chamber of Commerce: 47 Gordon Avenue, Salisbury (P.O. Box 1934, Salisbury).
Sinoia Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 278, Sinoia.
Umtali Chamber of Commerce: P.O. Box 281, Umtali.
Victoria Chamber of Commerce: Zimbabwe Court, Fitzgerald Avenue, Fort Victoria (P.O. Box
140, Fort Victoria).
LOCAL PUBLICITY ASSOCIATIONS AND INFORMATION BUREAUX
Bulawayo and District Publicity Association: Post Office Building, Main Street, Bulawayo (P.O. Box 861).
Victoria and Great Zimbabwe Publicity Association: Allan Wilson Street, Fort Victoria (P.O. Box 340).
Gatooma Regional Development and Publicity Association: Sangster's Travel Bureau, Edward Street, Gatooma (P.O. Box 102).
Lomagundi Regional Development and Publicity Association: Flame Lily Cafe, Sinoia and Shell Service Station, Kariba (P.O. Box 140, Sinoia).
Manicaland Development and Publicity Association: Cecil Hotel Building, Main Street, Umtali
(P.O. Box 69).
Salisbury and District Publicity Association: Rezende Street (by Bus Terminus), P.O. Box 1483, Salisbury.
South-Western Regional Development and Publicity Association: P.O. Box 72, Gwanda.
Victoria Falls and Wankie District Publicity Association: The Tourist Office, P.O. Victoria Falls.
Tourist Board Offices
THE head office of the Department of Tourism is situaated in Cecil House, 95 Stanley Avenue,
Salisbury (P.O. Box 8052; telephone 29051), close to one of Salisbury's leading hotels and next door to the Travel Centre.
In South Africa there are Rhodesia National Tourist Board offices in:
Johannesburg (African Life Building. 24A Joubert Street—P.O. Box 9398; telephone 225381),
Johannesburg (African Life Building. 24A Joubert Street—P.O. Box 9398; telephone 225381),
Durban (Salisbury House, Salisbury Arcade—P.O. Box 1689; telephone 66092),
and Cape Town (1016Tulbagh Centre, Hans Strijdom Avenue—P.O. Box 2465; telephone 41 2774).
In Mozambique, a Rhodesia National Tourist Board office may be found in Lourenco Marques (Predio Lusitana, Avenida Don Luis-5° Andar—C.P. 2229; telephone 3319).
The London office of the Rhodesia National Tourist Board is situated at Rhodesia House, 429 Strand, London, W.C.2. (telephone CO Vent Garden 1212), and in Europe there is another office in Basle, Switzerland, at Im Zehntenfrei 34, 4102 Binningen (telephone 23 00 06).
The New York office is at 535 Fifth Avenue (telephone YUK on 6-6838).
Rhodesian External Offices
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
Rhodesian Diplomatic Mission. Prudential Assurance Building, 28 Church Square, Pretoria (P.O. Box 153).
Trade Commissioner for Rhodesia, 620 Maritime House, Loveday Street, Johannesburg.
Rhodesian Information Office, Rhodes Building, 150 St. Georges Street, Cape Town (P.O. Box 2831).
Rhodesian Diplomatic Mission. Rua Barata Salgueiro No. 28-33, Lisbon.
Rhodesia Trade Representative, 16th Floor, Banco Comercial de Angola Building. Rua de Governador Eduardo Costa 124-126. Luanda.
Consulate-General for Rhodesia. 509-511 Predio Lusitana, Avenida Don Luis, P.O. Box 1586,
Lourenso Marques. Consular Agent of Rhodesia, P.O. Box 208. Beira.
Rhodesia House. 429, Strand, London, W.C.2.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Rhodesian Information Office. 2852 McGill Terrace, N.W.. Washington 8. D.C.
Rhodesian Information Centre, P.O. Box 138, Crow's Nest, Sydney, New South Wales 2065.
End of Article
Thanks to Diarmid Smith and Robb Ellis for their assitance and support
End of Article
Thanks to Diarmid Smith and Robb Ellis for their assitance and support