Thursday 26 September 2013

Victoria Falls Souvenir Guide (1969) Booklet

Front Cover

Souvenir guide in pictures and story

A Roundabout Publication from by Daphne Harris with additional Fact and incident for which we are mainly indebted to Livingstone's Diaries (J. M. Dent and Sons) and the definitive handbook of the Northern Rhodesia Government Commission for the preservation of Natural and Historical Monuments (J. Desmond Clark, 1952) on the Victoria Falls. Designed, edited and published by Sarum Imprint (Pvt.) Ltd. with the support of the Victoria Falls and Wankie Publicity Association and printed by Mardon Printers. MCMLXIX

Nature's mightiest wonder
 I have lived near the Victoria Falls for most of my life, within sight of their spray and within hearing of their thunder and it is now my greatest joy, as a Courier, to show these marvels of nature to all who come here. This is not a history hook but an informal guide and souvenir designed to answer the questions of the many tourists who come here to gaze upon the splendour of the Falls and their matchless surroundings. I hope it will help yon, too, to remember their unique magnificence.


Zambesi River
Length - 1,750 miles
From Source to Falls - 800 miles
From Falls to Kariba - 220 miles
From Kariba to Cabora Basa - 280 miles
From Cabora Basa to sea - 450 miles

The course of the mighty Zambezi
The Zambezi is one of Africa's mightiest rivers, the only really great river to flow down to the east coast of the African continent.

Its source was traced by Major Colin Harding (Commandant of the Barotse Native Police in the early nineteen-hundreds) to a well-watered plateau in the farthest north-western corner of Zambia at 5,200 feet above sea-level, a spot now called Kalene Hill, near one of the sources of the Congo river.

On this Barotseland tour of routine inspection and exploration he carried with him a "phonograph" which delivered spoken messages from the Administrator and Paramount Chief of the Matabele to chiefs of this remote area who returned the compliment by recording messages of allegiance for transmission through this astonishing "magic box".

The course of the river runs 1,750 miles from its source to its delta, 3-4 miles wide, near Chinde and Quelemanc, north of Beira on the Mozambique coast. On its way the Zambezi leaves Zambia, passes through Angola, re-enters Zambia then, forming the border between Rhodesia and Zambia, plunges over the Victoria Falls. It winds its way through the Batoka Gorge into Lake Kariba (when completed in 1959, the largest man-made lake in the world) then, 500 miles on, it surges through the narrow confines of the Kebrabassa Gorge, eroded 4,000 feet below the summit of the barrier hills (site of the projected Cabora Basa Dam in Mozambique) and down to the Indian Ocean 860 miles from the Victoria Falls.

The Victoria Falls and zig-zag gorges pose the biggest natural barrier to the Zambezi River in its struggle to reach the coast. They also present an incomparable and unique drama. Over a 350-foot drop of sheer black basalt cliff, 1¼ miles wide, surges 47 million gallons of water every minute of time, into the boiling chasms below. Nature, too, has arranged a front-row view of this astounding feature from the great natural grandstand of the Rain Forest on the tongue of land immediately facing the Falls, once part of the river-bed.

Above: The Victoria Fall Motel - RHODESIA Within sight and sound of the mighty Victoria Falls, and known to travellers of the world, this spacious Hotel has 126 bedrooms (all with telephones) and 72 private bathrooms. Every need is catered for, even to the extent of providing banking facilities, a shop and a hairdressing salon within the Hotel.

There is a swimming pool in a delightful setting, a putting course, and The Victoria Falls Casino nearby where, in the evenings, you can experience the thrill of roulette, baccarat and chemin-de-fer.

Make your reservations through your Travel Agent or write direct to:

The spray
HIGH above the Falls, the perpetual plunge and churn of water produces a stupendous, cloud of mist, driving spray and "comets' tails" of vapour which constantly fluctuate and sway up to 200 feet into the sky. Thomas Baines, the painter and surveyor, assessed the spray column above the Falls at 1,194 feet above the boiling cauldron at the foot of the gorge. Livingstone reported the spray to be visible from the Tonga plateau, 20 miles away (1855). Today, from the air, you can see the spray from up to 100 miles away depending on visibility conditions and the height of your aircraft.

It is from this fluctuating cloud of spray that the Falls derive their indigenous Makalolo title of Mosi-oa-tunya ("the smoke that thunders") and the Rain Forest (so christened by Edward Mohr in 1870) its appropriate name descriptive of the spray "so overpowering that it drips in torrents from every branch and leaf".

Nature carved the zig-zag gorges in the dawn of time
THE Victoria Falls—the largest curtain of falling water in the world—have a strange geological history. Livingstone concluded that the earth here had been split by sonic shattering cataclysm but more recent geology traces a story which began 150 million years ago.

The sheer sides of the zig-zag gorges present in section, to a depth of about 300 feet, a solid wall of one single type (if rock—black basalt—a rock which derives from age-old volcanic lava. From this natural display geologists confirm their conclusion that millions of years ago lava oozed from the still-molten shells of the earth's crusts, through clefts rather than through craters, and spread over vast areas of Central Africa, from east to west coasts, right down to Basutoland.

This lava cooled and hardened into basalts which split up progressively into isolated patches by erosion.

The next million years are a closed book but it was during this period that an unconsolidated overlay of Kalahari sand covered much of the basalt and this, in turn, was worn and washed away by the mighty volume of Zambezi waters, seeking out the cracks and fissures in the basalt, scooping away the soft material on their long journey to the sea.

The zig-zag traced by the gorges we see today represents the retreating fall-line of the water. Successively the outer lips of the Third Gorge, the Second Gorge and the First Gorge have in turn formed the fall-lines for the mighty mass of the Zambezi.

At the Devil's. Cataract a huge cleft in the lip, running roughly east and west, is taken to indicate the angle and position of the next gorge when it develops. But this will not be for many thousands of years—no change has been noted since accurate records were kept.

The Niagara Falls, by comparison, arc on softer limestone cliffs and are gradually being washed away.

Height: 355 feet
Width: miles 1¼ miles

Annual average: 47 million gallons per minute
Flood season: 120 million gallons per minute
Highest known: 158 million gallons per minute
Lowest known: 2½ million gallons per minute (1919)
Highest known Zambezi rise: 16 feet (1958)


Above: Reid Dick's statue of Livingstone gazes along the Falls he first saw in 1855.
Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

David Livingstone - explorer
THE Zambezi River was known to Arab traders for hundreds of years before the Portuguese began their exploration of the river in the sixteenth century. They navigated the river up to the Kebrabassa Gorge which proved an insuperable barrier and built protective forts in the hinterland several of which survive in good repair.

Though Boer farmers probably visited the area on their annual ivory hunt and may well have seen the Falls before the 1850's, it was David Livingstone who, for the first time, charted the actual course of the Zambezi River and was the first recorded white man to gaze upon the majesty of Mosi-oa-Tunya.

David Livingstone was born in Blantyre, Scotland, on 19th March, 1813. At the age of 10' he started work as a cotton spinner to pay for an education which would qualify him to become a medical missionary. He studied theology and medicine at Glasgow University and Charing Cross Hospital and was accepted into the London Missionary Society in 1838. He gained his degree and was ordained in 1840.

Livingstone sailed for South Africa from Scotland early, in 1841. For some four years Kuruman was his missionary base for short "prentice trips" to the north in search of a site for a new mission station. In 1843 he was joined by the Moffats then, in 1845, he married Mary, daughter of Rhodesian pioneer, Robert Moffat. In 1849 Livingstone set off on the first of his major missionary journeys and in 1851 reached the Zambezi River for the first time but fever forced him back without seeing the Falls.

Above: One of the few surviving photographs of Livingstone.
By courtesy of the National Archives of Rhodesia

Mary accompanied her husband on his 1850 journey north through the Kalahari Desert but the hazards of pioneer travel and the ravages of fever decided Mary, with their four children, to return to England where they spent four anxious years (1852- 56) waiting for news of Livingstone while he accomplished die further gruelling journeys of 1852 and 1853 reaching Luanda, on the west coast of Africa, in 1854.

David Livingstone continued his explorations of the course of the Zambezi and, on 16th November, 1855, he was taken by dugout to Kaseruka Island (now Livingstone Island) oil the very brink of the Falls which he now saw for the first time. He named the Falls "Victoria" for the Queen of England.

Livingstone's Diary records in detail his observations of the Falls and his reactions to these ' Scenes so lovely they must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". It was now that lie "planted a lot of peach and apricot stones and coffee seeds on the island which being already covered with trees seemed well adapted to a nursery. The spot selected for experiment was one which is visited with a fine sprinkling of condensed vapour many times a day .. . We gave instructions for the construction of a fence to prevent hippopotomi from treading the seedlings." His hope that Mosi-oa-tunya would prove "a more careful nurseryman" than the local Makalolo proved vain for when Sir Richard Glyn visited the island eight years later he found "only the stump of one peach tree" and the fence "breached in many places by sea-cow".

Glyn and his party also found Livingstone's initials, which he had carved on a large tree on the island, "nearly grown out", so re-cut them-with his own. This section of the tree-trunk is now preserved in the Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, on the north bank.

It was from this same island that Livingstone now measured the depth of the Falls by lowering a line which had been weighted with bullets, a square of white cloth tied to the weight. Unbelievably he then lay with his head over a projecting crag and watched the descent of the white calico until he had paid out 310 feet of line. The weight then rested on a projection and the cloth appeared "about the size of a five shilling piece".

Mary Livingstone later rejoined her husband and accompanied him on more of his exploratory journeys. Another daughter was born to them before Mary died of fever in 1862. She was buried on the banks of the Zambezi at Shupanga and Livingstone remembered her thus: "I loved her when 1 married her and the longer I lived with her I loved her the more."

David Livingstone, though elated by his discovery of the Falls, was thereby disappointed in his hope of finding a navigable outlet to the east coast. He was in the lower Zambezi in 1858 and revisited the Falls in 1860 with his brother Charles and spent several weeks recording their size and volume.

In 1869 David Livingstone disappeared. Henry Morton Stanley, a correspondent for the New York Herald, was sent with a £4,000 "expenses" subscription to Africa to search for the famous explorer. His comparatively humdrum' past had scarcely equipped him for the arduous adventures he was to face as he laboriously traced Livingstone's steps through Central Africa. But this determined and intrepid man finally found Livingstone ill and tired at Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika on the 28th October, 1871. His phlegmatic greeting "Dr. Livingstone, 1 presume" has passed into history.

David Livingstone contracted fever in Chief Chitambo's village, Ilala, on the south-east corner of Lake Bangweulu and died a lonely death on 1st May, 1873. His heart was removed and buried at the kraal of Chief Chitambo who had long befriended him. His body was embalmed and carried 1,500 miles to the coast, and across to Zanzibar, by his devoted friends Susi and Chuma {a slave whom Livingstone had freed). In itself this last journey was an epic in fortitude and devotion. Livingstone's body was shipped to England and now rests in Westminster Abbey in the heart of London.

Coillard, who followed up Livingstone's work, had this to say: "People admire the intrepid traveller, but one must come to Sesheke where he lived to admire the man. He has engraved his name in the very hearts of the heathen people of Central Africa."

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J/6. Salisbury-Kariba-Vlctoria Falls. 5 days. Depart Sunday, Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday; from R116.50.

J/23. Victoria Falls-Wankie- Kariba-Salisbury.8days. Depart Friday, Saturday or Sunday; from R151.50.

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After Livingstone
THE last half of the nineteenth century saw an astonishingly numerous traffic of intrepid explorers and missionaries who met or narrowly missed each other in their comings and goings in the area—Glyn, Leask, Downey, Selous, Oates, Francois Coillard, Serpa Pinto and many others including William Baldwin of Natal who succeeded in reaching the Falls in I860 guided only by a pocket compass. In assessing their achievements one should remember that they travelled many months on foot, horse or Cape wagon to reach their goal.

At Logier Hill, on the north bank between the Falls and the Batoka Gorge, Thomas Baines and Henry Chapman assembled their copper boats to explore the Zambezi in 1862. They camped near the spot where Livingstone's statue now stands and visited the old boatman, Zangurella, who had ferried Livingstone to his "garden island" seven years before.

By the end of the century a trading settlement of pole and mud huts, known as "The Old Drift", was established at the narrowest and deepest section of the Zambezi River between the Falls and the First Rapids. Here all supplies for the north bank were unloaded and ferried across the river; cattle swam across. One of the first settlers, "Mopani" (carpenter) Clark came across from Rhodesia in 1898 and established a store and hotel at The Old Drift. Miss Mackintosh, niece of Francois Coillard, visiting the Falls in 1903, said of Clark:

"He is the most important personage and seems to act as a kind of honorary Lord Mayor, exercising hospitality to strangers and organising festivals."

Henry Rangeley, first magistrate of North-western Rhodesia, says of The Old Drift at this time: "the pub kept open all night if there was custom and an American gambler ran a roulette table in the bar, with a very monotonous 'Round and round the little ball goes and where she'll stop there's nobody knows. Now gentlemen make your stakes, if you don't speculate you can't accumulate ...' " So the present luxury Falls Casino had a humble fore-runner!

Compare this view of the Cataracts with Baines' portrayal on the earlier in the story. Baines' careful references were remarkably faithful. Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

Bridging the Falls

Above: In 1903, while the bridge was under construction, this swaying cable offered the only means of crossing the gorge. The length of the road/rail bridge is 657 feet. The road level is 310 feet above the water in the gorge at high-water and 364 feel at low water.

Above: By Rhodes' choice the bridge was built within sight, sound and spray of the Falls. Throughout construction operations only two people lost their lives, in spite of the safety net illustrated above.

AT the turn of the century progress in Africa was measured by the railway line. So it was obvious that, once the railway reached the banks of the Zambezi, a bridge would have to be built to span the river.

Rhodes himself ordered a survey to be made for a railway bridge as close as possible to the Falls so that "passengers would feel the spray". He approved the site and Imbault's preliminary design in 1901 but died two years before the railway line pushed through to the Victoria Falls.

In 1904, amid great excitement, the railway reached the Falls. And, astonishing as it may seem, the engine which followed the plate layers completing the line was driven by a Miss Paulling, sister of one of the contractors.

The Cleveland Bridge Co. of Darlington, England, began preparations in 1903 for the bridge to be built from both sides at once. By September of that year wires spanned the gorge and the north and south banks were linked by telephone.

The actual erection took only nine months and by April 1905 the two arms were ready for the central link to complete the span. Calculations had been so exact that it was only necessary to await an overnight drop in temperature for the last piece of bottom boom to fall precisely into place.

Fifty years after Livingstone first saw the Falls the bridge was officially opened in 1905 by Professor Darwin, President of the British Association, the event commemorated by a special issue of Southern Rhodesian postage stamps. Throughout the construction of the bridge, old
Chief Mukuni camped near the site. He could not believe that the bridge would hold up without a centre support and daily invited his friends to "come and see the white man's bridge fall into the tumbling waters—I am sorry, for these white men work for no profit." As the first mail train crossed safely old Mukoni stood alone and amazed upon his rock.

Originally a toll fee of 1s. return was charged to passengers until the bridge was widened and reinforced in 1930 to accommodate road traffic. Now car travellers and pedestrians can look down from the centre of the bridge into the Boiling Pot where the whole mass of the Zambezi water is compressed into a 100-yard channel. The Victoria Falls Hotel can be seen on the right and the Armchair on the left.
Today a line drawn half-way across the bridge marks the Rhodesia-Zambia border. Visas are needed to cross into Zambia and these can be obtained from the Zambian Immigration Post by overseas visitors in transit. South Africans must apply beforehand from their home country. The border is open 24 hours a day.

Above: On the bank near the Devils Cataract the statue of David Livingstone stands, looking out over the falls. It is the work' of W. Reid Dick, A.R.A., and was unveiled in 1934 by the Hon. H. U. Moffat, Prime Minister of Rhodesia 1927-33 and nephew o f Mary Livingstone, David's wife. Here too, on 16th November, 1955, a ceremony was held to mark the 100th anniversary of David Livingstone's first sight of the Falls.

Around the Falls

DURING the dry season visitors can sometimes cross to tile central island, seemingly perched on the very edge of the Falls, now known as Living- stone Island. West of I ivingstone Island are the Main Falls, 573 yards wide. West of Main Falls is Cataract Island (also accessible in the dry season). West of Cataract Island is The Devil's Cataract, eroded some 30 feet below the Main Falls to a width of some 36 yards. The Devil's Cataract is an awesome sight, with a drop of 230 feet, best viewed from the Rain Forest. East of Livingstone Island lie the Rainbow Falls, so called because the sunlight playing on the perpetual spray produces a "glorious double-rainbow in the rich prismatic colours of day time or muted tints of moonlight" (Molyneus) —a fairyland picture in surprising contrast with the tumbling, thundering mass of water below. 

Above: The tamed water flows on from the Falls through the gorges until, 200 miles further on it reaches Kariba and, finally, the sea.
Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

East of the Rainbow hills is the Eastern Cataract, divided from the Rain- how Falls by a depression in the lip known as the Armchair. Beside the Eastern Cataract steps have been made in the cliff-side leading almost to the base of the Falls at a point, now only accessible from Zambia, where you can look up at the mass of water crashing down into the pool a few feet away—an awesome experience.

Above:  These scarlet pin-cushion lilies (Haemanthus Multiflora) flower in profusion in the rain forest from November to December. Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

The Rain Forest
Running roughly west to east and flanking the First Gorge, runs the Rain Forest, clothed by dense tropical jungle and watered by ceaseless spray which, in peak flood periods, intensifies into torrential downpour.

Whatever the season the Rain Forest is a source of fascination—rainbows seem to dance before your eyes wherever you walk. During October and November the entire forest is dotted with pin-cushion lilies (Haemanthus inullifiorus) even in dry areas untouched by spray.

In June 1968 the forest trees were hung with icicles surviving until 9 in the morning. The lush grass was sugared white with frost and ice, a rare and ethereal phenomenon at the Victoria Falls.

At night the Rain Forest is enchanting—especially at full moon. The dancing gleam of the water, the thunderous roar of the Falls and the peaceful silver of the river beyond, arc unforgettable.

Above:  From the Rain Forest the entire 1¼-mile-width of the Falls can be viewed. Paths lead to many vantage view points—but take care for the ground is wet and slippery. You need a raincoat, unimportant shoes and a towel round your neck if you arc not to be soaked to the skin.

Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

Rainbow Falls
East of Livingstone Island arc the Horseshoe Falls which form part of the Rainbow Falls, so called because the sunlight playing on the driving spray and mist creates perpetual double-rainbows spanning the gorge.

From one vantage point (September-November) you can watch African fishermen operating fearlessly on the very brink of the precipice. Here too the driving spray necessitates a raincoat and neck-towel.

Above: From a hunched standpoints, at a dozen different times of day, the Victoria Falls are always breathtakingly magnificent.

This photograph of the Devil's Cataract and the Main Falls beyond was taken at sunset during the dry season. It is fascinating to remember that this was a vie w Livingstone himself must have seen in 1855—the same rich colours, the same thundering waters, the same dry-season volume when the spray is less overpowering than earlier in the year.

Your journey to the falls was probably less arduous than Livingstone's though the hardy explorer writes of his pattern of travel: "It is a prolonged system of picnicking, excellent for health and agreeable to those who are not over-fastidious about trifles and who delight in fresh air.

Photo: Rhodesia Nations! Tourist Board.

Above: Danger Point, at the very tip of the tongue of land clothed by the Rain Forest, guards the entrance to the swirling Boiling Pot. The Knife Edge is off-right of this picture.

Danger Point
The eastern tip of the tongue of land occupied by the Rain Forest is cloaked by swirling mists at peak flood times (March and early April). But from August to September the jutting headland called Danger Point offers marvellous views along the gorge, with a fine aspect of the Eastern Cataract and a glimpse of the Falls Bridge.

Here a "footprint" in the rock has been dubbed "Eve's Footprint". It is a natural phenomenon in the volcanic basalt.

Through the narrow break through the entire mass of the Zambezi flows, rushing on to swirl around in the maelstrom of the Boiling Pot.

Lunar rainbows can be seen at the following times:
Over the Devils Cataract seen from the Rain Forest: approx. 7 p.m.
Over the Main Falls: approx. 11.30 p.m.
Over the Devils Cataract seen from Livingstone's Statue: approx. 4 a.m.

Above: At the toot of the gorge beside the furious Boiling Pot, approached only from the North Bank.

From Danger Point, too, you can gaze across to the Armchair, a depression in the lip of the Falls which was formed in 1926 when an enormous chunk dislodged rock fell into the gorge below with a thunderous crash which was heard above the misty roar of the Falls themselves. By repute, the Armchair depression is bottomless.

A path from Danger Point takes you to an impressive view of the bridge from the underside.

Danger Point is no empty title for the ground here is treacherous. In 1930 a farmer's wife venturing too close to the edge slipped and fell into the swirling waters below and was carried away to the Boiling Pot. She was never seen again, nor was her body recovered.

It is well worth descending into the tropical vegetation of the Palm Grove to view at closer quarters the disturbing fascination of the Boiling Pot.

This again is only accessible from the Zambian side, as is the Knife Edge, parallel with Danger Point, and now bridged for pedestrians.

Above: A long the banks of the Zambezi fishermen catch tiger, bream and barbel (catfish) of excellent size.
They should keep a wary eye open for the crocodiles which bask in the sun on the sandy banks but are never quite as sleepy as they look!

The Devil's Cataract
At the Devil's Cataract, above, the lip has been eroded to some 30 feet below the level of the Main Falls. Here the water rushes steeply s down a sloping bed to a width of 36 feet to fall 230 feet to the gorge below. At peak flood the water here reaches an. estimated 30 miles per hour as it plunges over the edge. In the afternoons a spectacular rainbow crosses the gorge at this point, best seen from the Rain Forest.

In 1905 a large black serpent-like creature was seen by several residents and this was linked to the traditional monster which Africans have always feared as lurking in the depths of the gorge.

Above: An awe-inspiring display of foaming, rushing torrent as the Devil's Cataract hurls itself into the gorge 230 feet below. 
Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board

Beside the Devil's Cataract you can descend one-third of the way down the gorge by rocky seeps made safer by a chain-hold. Thus you can sec the final plunge of the Devil's Cataract from below. Looking up in the dry season you can clearly see the cleft in the lip of the Falls which geologists believe may indicate the next line of fall when, aeons hence, the mass of water may cat its way north, forming another gorge by further massive rock-fall.

Above: This panorama shows Cataract Island in the foregound and, on the very brink of the Falls, the larger Livingstone Island,centre left. Livingstone's statue can be seen in the foreground clearing.

Livingstone Island
It was from here that David- Livingstone gained his first close-up view of the Falls in 1855 when "balanced as it were on the quivering precipice, the foam dashing on either side of him, the grey depths of the chasm beneath and with the sunshine and rainbow and mist overhead, the view must have been infinitely weird and impressive" (Molyneux). It was here that Livingstone planted his garden, fencing it against the ravages of the "sea-cows" and on a tree-trunk carved his initials now preserved in the Rhodes Livingstone Museum. The Batonka name for this island was Kaseruka Island.

Cataract Island
Cataract Island lies between the Main Falls and the Devil's Cataract. It is approximately two hundred yards wide. By the Batonka people it was named Boaruka Island ("divider of the waters") and was believed to be haunted by malevolent spirits who must be pacified with gifts of beads or bracelets. During the summer months the elephant swim across to feed on the island or, on rare occasions, actually walk across the lip of the Falls, forming an unbelievably dexterous freize.

To Kandahar Island
The island marks the boundary of navigable water above the Victoria Falls and is a calling-point for conducted morning, afternoon or sunset launch trips. (Book at the Victoria Falls Hotel.) The island is inhabited by a well-fed tribe of vervet monkeys who delight visitors at impromptu "Monkey's Tea-parties" where no biscuit or peanut is safe from their probing fingers. Earl Roberts' visit to the island was the occasion for naming it Kandahar, the East India Company station he relieved.

Above:  Your launch trip to Kandahar Island includes a detour to a favourite wallow of the hippo who jostle and snort as the launch mores near for a close-up view of these grey-and-pink monsters. Have your camera at the ready! 'Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board

Along the riverside
ABOVE The Falls the banks of the Zambezi offer untold interest. Regular launch trips arc run at set times throughout the day offering a delightful viewpoint of the river-side and islands with occasional bonus glimpses of game drinking or bathing at the water's edge.

The journey starts opposite Kalai Island, a favourite haunt of elephant and a paradise for crocodile dozing but alert on the sandbanks.

Turning up stream, leaving Long Island on the right, you head towards the site of "The Old Drift" and here you will sometimes see elephant on the bank or a family of warthog running "in line-astern" from the sound of the launch. Refreshments arc served on Kandahar Island

The BOAC flying boats used this stretch of river until 1949 and you can see the old landing stage and offices on the Rhodesian bank. Further downstream are the Zambezi Cottages (seepage 39) which arc extremely well equipped and ideal for fishermen and families. Through the grounds of this camp the animals walk down to the river to drink.

By private cars, the embarkation point for launch trips is reached by driving some two miles along the Parkway and turning right at the signpost.

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This is the way to see Rhodesia's great natural attractions. Fly from Salisbury or Bulawayo with Rhodesia's most experienced charter operators. Highly-skilled, experiences pilots take you or your business guests on unforgettable sky safaris over the Victoria Falls and Zambesi, Lake Kariba, the Zimbabwe Ruins and Lake Kyle for game-viewing and photography as spectacular as you'll ever experience
Book through your Travel Agent.

Salisbury Airport Phone 50505, Telegrams: 'Aircar'.
Branches in Bulawayo and Victoria Falls.
See Ruac, Air Rhodesia or your Travel Agent

Zambezi sky safari
HIGHLIGHT ot your stay is your flight over the Victoria Falls and surrounding  countryside in search of the untamed game which roams this still primitive part of Africa. Not only do these dawn and sunset patrols offer glorious birds-eye views of the great Zambezi river, its zig-zag gorges and the mighty Falls themselves but, even more thrilling, your low flights over the broad savannah grasslands bordering Botswana and Zambia reveal great herds of stately sable antelope, zebra, tsessebe, waterbuck and many other types of antelope. As the vegetation patterns change below you, herds of buffalo arc seen in the dense bush, giraffe wander browsing in the sparsely-treed lands and along the luxuriant river banks the elephant, giant of them all, drink and cool themselves in the sluggish water. Nearby the hippo wallow and crocodile bask. Throughout your 200 mile air safari you swoop low, seeming to pirouette on one wing, for a closer view of these rare and magnificent beasts, at home in their natural habitat but undismayed by the low-flying aircraft. For amateur photographers this is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for dramatic shots both of the Falls themselves and of the wild game populating the area.

These Sky Safari flights take off" from the Spray View airstrip, about five minutes by car from your hotel. You take off here, too, for the fifteen-minutes Flight of the Angels" aerial tour of the gorges and Falls themselves, spectacular and unforgettable.

Above: The Zebra thunder across the plain below yon, more, for the fun of it than from alarm.
Photos: Rhodesia National Tourist Board

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Also in Umtali (Cecil and Royal), Gwelo (Midlands), Fort Victoria (Hotel Victoria), Hartley and Belingwe.
Meikles Associated Hotels, P.O. Box 594, Salisbury, Rhodesia.

Power from the Falls

The right to use the entire power of the Zambezi in the vicinity of the Victoria Falls was signed in 1906 but not used until 1934 in return for an annual rent of £500 and small royalties.

The Power Station was erected at the Silent Pool in the Third Gorge, the first turbine being set in motion in 1938.

In 1949 the then Northern Rhodesian Government acquired all interests in the Company, including the hydro-electric undertaking, for the sum of £104,000. Power is transmitted to Livingstone in Zambia by underground

The years 1957 and 1958 were years of outstanding Zambezi flood when the "River God" wreaked his anger on man made installations both at Kariba and the Victoria Falls. In March 1957 the invading waters lifted the entire floor of an office at the Power Station which was, of necessity, closed for some days. A protecting wall, constructed against a possible repetition of such an over powering volume of water, was not yet completed when the 1958 floods came and the station was again seriously flooded.

Either the "River God" has now been tamed or he is biding his time for a future onslaught!

Text reads:-
Souvenir Hunting?
A Dennis Thomson Original copper screen
your best choice is always a
by H. T. Enterprises (Pvt.) Ltd.
P. Bag 15, Kopje. Phone 661139.

Where to stay

VICTORIA FALLS NATIONAL PARK chalets, lodges, caravan and camping sites. There arc three .camps in the National Park.

Main Camp is right in the Victoria Falls Township, about a mile from the Falls. It provides accommodation in one and two-bedroomed chalets or luxury tents, equipped with electric light, refrigerator, beds and all bedding, cooking utensils but no cutlery or crockery.
There are ablution blocks, with steaming hot water, fire-grids and plentiful wood. Alongside the camp there is a fully licenced restaurant, a take-away food shop, general provision shop, a butcher and a garage.

Charges: R$I.50 a night per adult or R$ 9 per week. Children over 3 and under 16 half price.
There is a fully illuminated caravan site, and a camping site with all facilities. Camping and caravan charges are 25 cents per adult per night.

Zambezi Camp provides 20 lodges on the river bank 4 miles upstream from the Falls. The lodges provide ,all bedding, refrigerator, cutlery, crockery and cooking utensils, excellent fishing and game viewing facilities.

The cost is R$2.50 per night per person or R$15 per week. Children over 3 and under 16 half price. The services of a servant are included as is the wood for cooking and braais (barbeque). The camp is reached along Parkway and is situated just before the Game Park.

At the launch jetty you will find the Caravan site now enhanced by new ablution blocks and other installations in very lovely surroundings.

Kandahar Fishing Camp is inside the Game Park, and reached by the Parkway. It has camping facilities only inside a fenced half acre. There are cold water showers, toilets, cooking grids and firewood.

Camping charges arc 25 cents per adult per night.

All National Park bookings should be made at the Central Booking Office, Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management, Third Street, Salisbury. Tel. 26087 8 or write to P.O. Box 8151, Causeway.

PETERS MOTEL provides accommodation in airconditioncd bedrooms with private bath and shower. They have an excellent dining room with first class service and beautiful swimming pool where all are welcome. It is on the main Bulawayo Road and very near the Sprayview Airstrip.

The VICTORIA FALLS HOTEL provides exceptionally comfortable, cool accommodation, and excellent food. The hotel overlooks the Falls spray, bridge and gorges. (The view from the terrace is illustrated above.) There is a cocktail lounge, swimming pool, chapel, and very beautiful shady gardens: all are welcome at the swimming pool where reasonably priced meals and drinks are readily available. It is within walking distance of the railway station.

Pool-side lunch. Even if you arc not staying at the Victoria Falls Hotel you are welcome to swim and lunch, for a very reasonable sum, beside the Hotel's lovely pool. You will be joined by the ubiquitous vervet monkeys around the
trees and pergolas.

THE VICTORIA FALLS CASINO HOTEL provides a glamorous element in a part of Africa richly endowed with natural wonders. In the elegant modern casino the roulette wheels spin; playing cards bedeck the green baize of baccarat, chemin de fer and black-jack tables; even the more prosaic "fruit machines" have their p[lace. The hotel offers single and double accommodation with bathrooms, excellent food, a swimming pool and cocktail lounge.

Game viewing in the National Park - BOLD
THE Victoria Falls National Park covers some 230 square miles of which about 220 square miles are designated Game Reserve stretching some 40 miles upstream from Victoria Falls township.

This natural Game Park is open to visitors from May to November and offers many delightful numbered braaivleis or picnic sites with a plentiful supply of wood for those who want to cook.
You have a choice of two roads tor game viewing.

ABOVE: Antelope, including tabic, impala and tsessebe, abound in their natural habitat.

BELOW: African elephant are remarkable for their enormous ears: Indian elephant's ears are 
comparatively small.

Photos: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

Above:  Creatures of habit, elephant still use the trails established thousands of years ago as they travel from one feeding ground to another.
Photo: Rhodesia National Tourist Board.

The Zambezi Drive, reached by driving along the Parkway. It extends along the river bank and here elephant, kudu, buffalo, waterbuck, impala, bushbuck, sable, tsesscbe, warthog, hippo and crocodile can often be seen.
Entrance along this road is R$I per car. The Park is open from 6.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. daily from May to November.

The Chamabonda Game Park is entered from the Bulawayo Road, miles from Victoria Falls where there is a large, distinctive sign at the turn-oft'The Park stretches for some 20 miles inland and offers excellent game-viewing,
particularly of eland, giraffe, zebra and superb herds of sable antelope. Entryis R$1 per car. The Park is open from May to November from 6.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. daily.

Eventually Zambezi Drive and Chamabonda Drive will link up, thus forming a circular drive of matchless viewing opportunity. Rhino are only rarely seen in this area and lion virtually never. Leopards, though quite common in the gorge areas, are seldom seen though your car lights may occasionally pick up a leopard's eyes. Cheetahs too, traditionally the fleetest of the big cats, are occasionally seen. Baboon and vervet monkeys are often seen and have become very tame from their familiarity with tourists.

Above: Local legend has it that one day the Devil, in a fury, uprooted all the Baobab trees. He then regretted what he had done and replanted them with the roofs upwards—hence their grotesque appearance! This giant specimen on the banks of the Zambezi is 150 feet high and 67 feet, round and may be as much as 2,000 years old. During October and November ir has beautiful large white flowers about 6 inches across, resembling a single rose. Each only lasts one day. The fruit is in an oval pod containing acid-tasting cream-of- tartar. This big tree was the place of "outspan' for early pioneers on their way to Livingstone across the river.

Above:  Magnificent sable antelope graze beside a waterhole on Chamabonda drive, seen on a conducted game-viewing bus tour. Private cars can, of course, enter the park for a small fee.

Information Desk


Restaurants : 7 a.m. to 10 p.m.
Take-away foods : 7 a.m. to 2 p.m. 4 p.m. to 9 p.m.
Boutiques, general stores etc.
Weekdays: 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. 2 p.m. to 5 p.m.
Saturdays: 8 a.m. to 12 noon.
Grocers, butchers 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. 2 p.m. to 5 p.m.
One or other is open Saturday afternoon and Sunday morning and all public holidays.
Post Office :
Weekdays: 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. 2 p.m. to 4.30 p.m. Saturdays: 8.30 to 12.30 p.m.
Closed Saturday afternoons, Sundays and Public Holidays. (Postal rates vary with destination and should be checked.)

Art Studio with paintings for exhibition and sale by world- famous artist Joan Jocelyn is open daily from 8 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. 2.00 p.m. to 5 p.m., including Saturdays and Sundays.
Banking hours : Mon., Tues., Thurs., Friday. 8.30 to 12.30 p.m. 2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m.
Wednesday: 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.
Saturday: 8.30 a.m. to 11 a.m.
Air Rhodesia Terminal :
Weekdays: 8 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.
Saturdays: 8 a.m. to 1.30 p.m.
Sundays and Public Holidays: 9 a.m. to 1.30 p.m.
Border Post: Open 24 hours a day, throughout the year.

Comparative times: Midday Victoria Falls; 5 a.m. New York; 8 p.m. Sydney; 10 a.m. London.

SKY SAFARIS : Bookings in hotel foyers.
LAUNCH TRIPS : United Touring Co. and Zambesi Safaris: Morning, afternoon and sunset cruises. Bookings at office in village or in hotel foyers.
GAME TOURS: Unitec Touring Co., Zambesi Safaris, Salisbury Safaris.
GARAGE FACILITIES : Petrol and oil sales 24 hours daily.

By car: Through Bulawayo by fully tarred road (278 miles).
By air: Daily flights from Bulawayo, Salisbury and Johannesburg, via Bulawayo. Saturday and Sunday direct from Johannesburg. Charter flights.
By rail: From Bulawayo with connections from Salisbury and Johannesburg.
All water from taps is perfectly safe.
Anti-malarial tablets are advisable and can be purchased locally.
The sun is strong, particularly in September to December and hats, sunglasses, tanning cream are advisable.
Where tips are not included in the bill 10% is a fair amount.
Sport: Miniature golf, all welcome, at Victoria Falls Hotel. Tennis, bowls, snooker at Victoria Falls Club (open to temporary residents for 10s. fee.)
Cinema : Tuesday and Friday (Victoria Falls Club.)
Churches : Chapel in Victoria Falls Hotel. Catholic Church.
Publicity Association : Victoria Falls and Wankie Publicity Association at National Parks Information Office.

End of Pg 36 and 37

Text Reads
Magnificent wild life— elephant—lion—buck—game viewing in Landrovers. Extended photographic and hunting safaris arranged. Superb tiger and bream fishing. Excellent accommodation, swimming pool, bar and dining room overlooking the colourful Chobe River.

or S.A.A. Booking Offices.
P.O. Kazungula (via Victoria
Falls), Botswana.
Tel.: Kasane 6.

We are pleased to welcome you to Victoria Falls and supply you with all your holiday requirements

Above: The Craft Village ifs open daily from 8,30am to 5.30 p.m.

a corner of THE REAL AFRICA 
THE Falls Craft Village, established in 1967, is a fascinating replica of a nineteenth-century Matabele kraal. Here you can see how life was lived by an ordinary Matabele man and his three wives in a complex of thatched pole-and-daga huts representing his living quarters. You visit his sleeping quarters and those of his wives, their kitchens their thatched grain-storage bins where the piccanins (youngster) hop In and out for the family's daily supplies, the children's sleeping huts, the chicken coops, the cattle and sheep kraals and much more besides. The witch-doctor is in daily attendance, dressed in his skirt of jennet tails and python-vertebrae necklaces, with all his primitive paraphernalia including the bones he throws to make his predictions and tell fortunes.

A guided tour of the village with experienced guides, versed in the tribal customs and beliefs of the time, takes approximately 30-40 minutes though you may well linger longer over the fascinating and unfamiliar activities displayed for your interest. Here,, indeed, is a little corner of the "real" Africa which, in the remoter areas, has changed little since Llvingstone's day.

Established in the village, too, are workshops where you can watch many traditional hand-crafts actually in progress. For instance, you can see the weaving of cord and sisal into handbags, the making of llala palm hats and bags, masterly carving in wood and soapstone, wood-turning and the fashioning of drums and tribal masks.

Above: Some of the soapstone carvers at the Village.
Below: The first wife works at the grain in her kitchen.

The intricate carving of elephant bone into individual ornaments is believed to be unique to this village. From all over Southern Africa these craftsmen have come to produce some of the finest work of its kind in the entire continent.

The products of these multifarious workshops are on display and for sale to visitors. Many of the finer articles are one-only originals and thus make particularly precious souvenirs.

The End

Above: The reconstructed 19 th century Matabele village at the Victoria Falls.

THE African Craft Village is unique in its conception. It is an exact replica of a nineteenth-century Matabele kraal, representing the home of one Matabele man and his three wives. A guided tour takes about 40 minutes and is a "must" for every visitor to the Victoria Falls.


Special thanks to Shelley Chipchase (Luanshya in Northern Rhodesia) who made the booklet available to Rob Picton (Intaf) who did the scanning and sending it to ORAFs. Thank you both

Please note that ORAFs (Eddy Norris) added the hyper-links in this article, hopefully it will assist our non Rhodesian readers.

Comments are always welcome, please mail them to Eddy Norris at   

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